Keeping the Public informed to the Fire service is important!!!! At Hull Fire Dept. We take pride in that bond we have with our Citizens!!!
Want to speak the language?
This page is intended to offer members of the general public a glimpse into the fire service vocabulary.
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Advanced Life Support
Advanced life support (ALS) is medical care provided by paramedics trained to assess a patient's condition, administer drugs, defibrillate and provide advanced airway management prior to transportation to the hospital.
A ladder usually 8-10 feet long that usually can be folded so that the two beams touch each other. Also called a scuttle hull or pencile ladder in some parts of the country.
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A backdraft occurs when oxygen-starved fire suddenly receives oxygen. The sudden rush of oxygen causes all of the super-heated gases to ignite at the same time, which causes an explosion. While the risk of such an occurance is low, a backdraft is almost always fatal to anyone caught in it.
Basic Life Support
Basic life support (BLS) is a level of care provided to patients requiring transportation to the hospital. BLS does not include extensive medical supervision or treatment.
Booster line is a hose that is usually one inch in diameter and rubber jacketed. They are used on small fires using the water carried in an apparatus' booster tank and are usually stored on reels. Also referred to as a red line.
The tank on a pumper or quint that supplies booster lines and hand lines at a fire until a connection with a water source can be made. The booster tank on most pumpers is between 500-1,000 gallons. The tank on a quint is usually smaller, carrying only a couple of hundred gallons.
A box alarm is the response to a report of fire or smoke inside or coming from a structure. Usually, multiple companies are dispatched at the same time on a box alarm. Some departments have Haz-Mat and Rescue Boxes for hazardous materials and rescue calls. The term box alarm originates from the original pull boxes located on the street in many communities. A typical structure box alarm would include two or more engine companies, one or more ladder companies, a rescue company and a chief officer.
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A large and fixed water nozzle attached to an engine. Deck guns deliver larger amounts of water than hand-held hose. (See also Master Stream).
Drafting is the pulling of water from a source other than accepting pressurized water from a hydrant or another fire apparatus. Cisterns, lakes, ponds and swimming pools are often used in drafting operations. Many departments in rural areas without fire hydrants use drafting.
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The engine is also referred to as a pumper because of its ability to pump water. In most cases, an engine carries small ground ladders, supply line to connect it with a hydrant, hand lines to fight the fire with and a tank holding between 500 and 1,000 gallons of water.
An engine company is a combination of a fire engine and the manpower used to staff it. A standard engine company will include an officer, driver/engineer and two firefighters on a pumper truck.
Exposures are buildings or structures that are near the structure on fire and that are placed at risk by the fire. A primary focus of the responding fire department will be to protect the exposures, thus reducing the risk of the fire spreading and causing additional damage to life & property.
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FAST (Firefighter Assist and Safety Team) Truck
A FAST truck is a company of firefighters (usually from a truck or rescue company) whose sole function at a fire is to stand by in case a firefighter becomes injured or trapped and needs assistance. The company assigned to the FAST truck is usually a highly trained group and reports only to the incident commander. In some departments, this group is call a RIT (Rapid Intervention Team).
Fast attack is when the first arriving engine company attacks the fire using water carried in the booster tank, relying on the second company to secure a water supply.
A line used for water supply. Usually 4" or 5" LDH.
The sudden ignition of all flammable material in a room or structure. As the fire burns and heat is generated and stored in the room on fire, it is possible for the heat to accumulate faster than it can use fuel. Once this reaches critical mass, the heat then turns all the flammables in a room into fuel at one time. The danger is that this causes an inversion of the thermal layers because the new fuel is almost always near the floor. Despite superb protective gear, a firefighter has less than two seconds to evacuate a room that has a flashover.
Foam is a concentrate mixed with water or air and applied to any material that is on fire or could potentially catch fire. The foam creates a barrier between the material and the heat, preventing ignition of flammable gases. Foam is commonly used on flammable liquid fires (gas or oil), but is also being used in some areas for automobile & structure fire applications.
The act of gaining access to a structure through means other than an open window or door. Frequently, firefighters must force open doors that are locked or remove security doors and bars in order to enter a structure to search for victims & extinguish a fire. A variety of hand, power & hydraulic tools can be used for forcible entry.
A forestry line is a small-diameter, cotton-jacketed handline used to fight brush and forest fires. Its construction reduces the weight a firefighter has to pull and therefore reduces fatigue.
A forward lay is when fire hose is laid from the hydrant to the fire. (See also reverse lay).
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A handline is a small diameter hose usually used inside a burning structure to directly apply water on to the fire. Handlines are usually 1.5 or 1.75 inches in diameter. Lines as large as 2.5 inches in diameter (also called the "deuce and a half") can be used for heavy fire conditions.
Hose is used to deliver water onto a fire and to provide water from hydrants to firefighting apparatus. The types of hose used include handlines, booster lines and large diameter hose.
An upright metal casting connected to a water supply system and equipped with one or more valved outlets to which a pumper or hoseline can be connected.
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Incident Command System (ICS)
A management system of procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment and communications from different agencies to work together towards a common goal in an effective and efficient manner. Is the chain of leadership and command at the scene of an emergency.
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A term used to refer to a good firefighter. One story has the term originating from the corruption of the phrase, "J-key." Years ago, the bed was the most expensive piece of furniture in a dwelling. Since firefighters weren't as good at stopping fire as they are today, they would attempt to remove as many belongings as possible. The bed was too large to carry out in one piece and had to be disassembled using a bed key. The key was shaped like the letter J and called a J-key.
A generic term applied to a type of rescue tool that can cut, push or pull material (most often pieces of an automobile). Jaws of Life is a synonym, but is the copyrighted product name of Hurst. Holmatro and Amkus are also major manufacturers of jaws.
A jump line is a handline stored in an extended bumper (also called a jump bumper) and preconnected to the engine to allow for a quicker attack.
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A ladder company is a combination of a fire truck with an aerial ladder, an assortment of ground ladders and forced entry tools and the manpower used to staff it. Ladder trucks can have straight aerial ladders as short as 65 feet or longer ladders with platforms (buckets) on the end. In many department's ladder companies are responsible for ventilation and forcible entry duties. A standard ladder company will include an officer, driver/operator and two firefighters on a ladder truck.
Large Diameter Hose
The biggest hose used by firefighters, large diameter hose (LDH) is sometimes referred to as a water main above ground. LDH is usually 4-5 inches in diameter and is used to supply water from the hydrant to pumper trucks. See also supply hose.
A leader line is a line usually having a gated wye on the end. Leader lines are usually 3 or 2.5 inches in diameter and the wye usually feeds two or three 1.5 or 1.75 inch attack lines.
Term used by Los Angeles Fire Department when a tillered fire truck and a fire engine used to pump water for the truck respond together. The engine in a light force will be assigned a number 200 higher than the station number and is staffed by an engineer only. Example: There are four rigs stationed at LAFD Station 20 (Engine 20, Truck 20, Engine 220 & Rescue 20). When Truck 20 and Engine 220 respond together, it's referred to as Light Force 20. If Engine 20 responded with the light force, all three rigs would be referred to as Task Force 20.
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A master stream is a large and fixed stream of water. Master streams are used on the end of aerial ladders on ladder trucks and on top of pumper trucks. Master streams can deliver larger amounts of water than hand-held hose.
A type of master stream similar to a deck gun, but removable from the apparatus. Hose can be laid into it, making it mobile.
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Commonly viewed as "cleaning up" after a fire, overhaul is the process of putting a structure in the safest condition following a fire. Additionally, it is during the overhaul phase of an incident that firefighters verify that the fire has not extended into unknown areas and that hidden "hot spots" are extinguished.
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In most cases, a pumper carries small ground ladders, supply line to connect it with a hydrant, hand lines to fight the fire with and a tank holding between 500 and 1,000 gallons of water. Same as an Engine.
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Red line is a hose that is usually one inch in diameter and rubber jacketed. This type of hose is used on small fires using the water carried in an apparatus' booster tank and are usually stored on reels. Same as booster line.
A rescue company is a term used to describe a rescue truck and the firefighters used to staff it. A rescue company is equipped and trained to handle a variety of duties including search and rescue, medical treatment of victims, suppression at the scene of a fire and the extrication of victims in motor vehicle accidents. The actual duties of a rescue company can vary in different parts of the country as does the term to describe one. A Rescue Company is called a Squad in some areas while other areas use the term when referring to their ambulances.
When supply hose is laid from the fire to the water source, placing the pump at the source of water. (See also forward lay)
RIT (Rapid Intervention Team)
Same as FAST Truck.
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The process of protecting the contents of a building from fire, smoke and water damage. Tools used include salvage covers that are placed over furniture, preventing damage from water and debris.
A mental process of evaluating all of the invfluencing factors at a fire scene before committing personnel and equipment to a course of action. This usually includes hazards, life safety, fire involvement and plan of attack.
The aerial of a ladder truck. Aerials vary in length depending on the needs and finances of a department. Some are as short as 65 feet, while others reach lengths greater than 100 feet.
A still alarm is a call requiring only one company. Examples of a still alarm include a small fire or a medical call.
Strike the Box
To transmit or strike an alarm over the radio for a full first alarm assignment.
Hose line used to supply water from a hydrant to fire apparatus. Many departments use large diameter hose (see above) for this purpose. LDH is sometimes referred to as a water main above ground and is usually 4-5 inches in diameter. However, some departments use smaller 3-inch hose to supply water at a fire.
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Is a type of ladder truck with a second cab at the rear of the truck where a firefighter will steer the rear wheels. Because tillar trucks can steer in the front and the back, they are able to navigate turns that other ladder trucks could not.
Same as jump line, although not necessarily carried on the front bumper.
See Ladder Company.
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Up and Over
A standard ventilation operation conducted by a team of firefighters wherein ladders are raised at a working fire involving a rowhouse-type dwelling to gain access to the roof to allow the firefighters to ventilate the involved dwelling. The intent is to get the upper floor opened up as quickly as possible. This is accomplished by opening skylights and/or scuttles and ensuring windows in the rear and front are taken out at the same time. The advantage of this operation is that many times, it is difficult to bring portable ladders to the rear of a row-type dwelling in some areas due to trash-strewn, overgrown, narrow, winding alley-ways. A 6-foot hook allows the one firefighter venting the rear to reach down (carefully where wires are involved) and take out (break) the windows. Any blinds, curtains, or drapes can be snagged with the
hook to remove them and thereby facilitate the speedy evacuation of super-heated smoke and gases.
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Ventilation is the systematic removal of smoke from a building. Ventilation is usually accomplished with one of two methods: positive and negative pressure ventilation. Positive pressure ventilation increases the atmospheric pressure in the building until it is grater than the pressure outside the building. With negative pressure ventilation, the pressure inside the building is reduced until its less than the pressure outside the building.
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